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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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Handloom weavers were one of the worst effected groups during the cyclone of november, 1996.  This was in addition to the hardships already faced by the weaver’s economy for the last few decades which has pushed almost all of them under the poverty line.  Their houses and tools were destroyed resulting in some of them residing in temporary shelters on canal banks.  After the cyclone and in the process of clearing of debris that were choking the canals, the irrigation department cleared these shelters.  At this stage SAKTI intervened and helped in repairing their equipment, helped in acquiring land and rehabilitating these families in Vilasavalli village.

The organisation also helped in creating drainage facility in Pulletikurru Village, provided cement poles for retrofitting, palmleaves for roofing, dug a well and constructed community toilets and steps leading into the canal to help fetch drinking water in Vilasavalli village.  In the same village another NGO has distributed stand looms.  Most of the weavers are unable to use these stands for different reasons (house is not high enough and there is no electricity).

The Government has also provided them with one more stand loom for them and as for the Adarana Scheme (providing tools to artisans) not much is known.  When the Government proposed to construct one more toilet in Vilasavalli village next to the one constructed by SAKTI, villagers were organized to protest and force the Government to construct the same in adjacent village SAMANASA where toilet facilities was badly needed.  Some people have managed to get government sanctions for pucca houses.  But they suppressed this information and later started using the same material provided by the organisation for construction of Pucca houses.  However some people managed to get sanctions only later.  It is a matter of concern that every time the Government announces targets for the construction of lakhs and lakhs of houses and issue of pattas under AWAS YOJANA, there seems to be no transparency about selection and execution of such programs.

Neglected Resources A Source of III Helath:

Every village has drinking water tanks.  Most of them are defunct, and dirty and a potential health hazard.  Wherever alternatives for drinking water is available these tanks can be converted into fish tanks.  But no such effort is taking place in spite of the much publicized clean and green programs and the Janmabhoomi program.  SAKTI is helping in renovating the Jaggarajupeta tank.  In most of these villages poor women have no access to community toilets.  House site pattas are distributed only on paper.  Almost all weavers’ cooperative societies are mismanaged and have become bankrupt.

Affluent area – growing poverty:

The cyclone hit ‘Konaseems’ is the most affluent area of Andhra Pradesh.  More than a hundred years ago a barrage was constructed on river Godavari which helped irrigated land. Since then there has been a substantial increase in irrigated area under cultivation without even sparing a little land for construction of community toilets for poor women.  The area ended up becoming affluent.  The surplus income generated form this area is invested in cities.  People from such sections are able to revive themselves to normal within a very short time following the cyclone.  It may be noted that the Government borrowed 1000 crores from the World Bank in 1990 to clear the drainage system in the command area.

Amalapuram is important town in this area.  92% of families of the Amalapuram Mandal are having white ration cards eligible for supplies from the public distribution system.  But as the civil supplies commissioner admitted in a TV interview most of these cards must be tied up with middlemen or retail dealers.  The Lakdawala commission differed with the figures of poverty line arrived by Andhra Pradesh government.  The government of India differed with the statistics prepared by the government about the damage due to cyclone.  Amalapuram is a parliamentary constituency reserved for scheduled castes.  The presiding officer of one of the houses of Parliament (Speaker, Loksabha) at present is representing this constituency.  Every time he visits the constituency, he is involved in the opening one or the other housing colony or cyclone shelters constructed by NGOs or Government.

The vulnerability of the weaker sections of this cyclone hit area is related to governance.  It can be tackled by organising people and drawing their attention to the distortions at various levels.  Unfortunately the perspective plans of NGOs or government don’t reflect this reality.  None of our efforts force the local administration to reconcile with felt needs of the people.  We are also bogged down with internal problems such as untimely release of funds, communication gaps, obsessions with construction programs whipping to complete targets and achievements, touch and vanish and training and visit attitudes.  Hope we reflect upon the purpose and meaningful role of our intervention reorganise our perspective and style of functioning and enable people to realize their share in due course of time and over come the vulnerability.

Vulnerable Economy

When we asked the Vilasavalli villages what their priority needs were, bricks for houses or capital for weaving.  They preferred bricks.  From the beginning we felt that since the economy is vulnerable, the natural calamities multiplied the vulnerability.  If the economy is properly organized the surplus generated would enable them to rise above the poverty line.

In East Godavari there are 52 weavers cooperative societies.  Except for a few most of the societies are not functioning.  The share capital was eaten away by members in some societies and in some societies the society is not in a position to pay Mazoori and supply yarn.  In Konaseema 90% of weavers are dependent on master weavers.  They borrow looms from master weavers and are dependent on them. Master weavers supply yarn and pay wages for the saris produced by weavers.  The wages paid by master weaver’s ranges from Rs.250/- to Rs.600/- The wages are very low.  The whole family works for this wages.

In order to help the weavers in improving their income we had a series of meetings with weavers.  Finally with the suggestions of weavers from different villagers a economic program with 19 families in Kesana Kurrupalem was started, later it has been extended to 13 more families in Somadeverapalem and Pulletikurru.  The cumber yarn tools (dobby) charkas etc. were supplied to weavers.  The organisation is facing difficulties in marketing their produce and arrange supplies of raw material in eliminating intermediaries.  Now people are getting Rs.300/- more per month for their products.  Out of 24 lakhs budget 5 lakhs working capital is provided in the program to cover 30 families.  The sale of saris is a seasonal business.  If the stocks file up we have to stop production till we dispose of all stocks.  The to revive the production it is impossible and the weavers will be forced to go back to the master weaver.

We are trying our best to explore regular markets by organising exhibitions etc.  We are confident that this program will be successful but may take some time.



W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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