Get Adobe Flash player


 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


Read full article


 Awakening among tribals in agency tracts

The Hindu, Thursday, August 3, 1995.
From Our Staff Reporter

Rajahmundry , Aug. 2 : The series of events to the last two months in the agency tracts of West Godavari district, specially in the mandals of Jeelugumilli, Buttayagudem and Polavaram, which led to grave law and order problem, has shown that there has been a new awakening among tribals about their rights. They are asking inconvenient questions like, "when our land holdings are getting reduced for various reasons like division of property among offspring, how is it that those of non tribals are increasing?"

The tribals are also questioning the ownership of lands of many a non-tribal in the agency area. When senior officials went to the spot and asked the tribals whether they want seeds, fertilizers of pumpsets, the reply was ­- "What do we do with all this without land. Give us some land."

The origin of the series of incidents can be traced to a decision taken, on May 4, by the Special Duty Collector (Tribal Welfare), Kotaramachandrapuram, West Godavari district in which about 27 acres of fertile land in Jilellagudem village in Jeelugumilli mandal was taken over by the authorities. In the face of strong pressure, specially on Mr. Arvind Kumar, Sub-collector, Kovvuru, land was distributed to tribals by May 30. This was stated to be a rare incident and had sent shock waves among farmers having lands in the tribal areas.

Court Stay

On previous occasions, what the non-tribal farmers did was to get a stay order from the High Court, for which there was 60 days time, and continue to enjoy the fruits of the land. But on this occasion, officials argued that the time of 60 days was meant for appeal and in no way came in the way of distribution of land taken over from the non-tribals. As expected, the non-tribals did bring a stay order from court but it became infructuous because lands had already been distributed.

However, this led to friction between tribals and non-tribals farmers in the agency area. In one particular incident, the tribals had gathered in strength and attacked non-tribal farmers, resulting in injuries to 20 persons. This was in the first week of May and the core issue was some 600 acres in Jillellagudem village.

This led to the arrest of many tribals and promulgation of Section 145 which prevented entry, by both tribals and non-tribals Encouraged by a favourable decision in the case of lands in Jeelugumilli, tribals in other parts have also occupied lands of non-tribals, which the latter have been enjoying for the last several decades, subsequent events have strengthened the claims of tribals for example, more than 60 non-tribal farmers have been enjoying an extent of 160 acres in Jillelugudem village.

The tribals, including some women, occupied these holdings, asserting that the land in question, that is 160 acres was part of AWD (Assessed Waste Dry) or what is popularly known as Government Poramboke, over which they (tribals) had a claim because it was located in the agency area. When officials asked the non-tribal farmers to produce documentary evidence in support of their claim over the lands, 17 farmers could not do so in respect of another 26 acres.

This phenomenon of tribals occupying lands of non-tribal had spread to other villages and hamlets such as Rachanagudem (where 29 acres had been distributed to tribals) Munugopula,. Reddinagapalem, Koyanagapalem, etc. while tribals claim that the land under possession of non-tribal farmers is AWD.

Relay fast by non-tribals

Since this is the start of the kharif season and farmers would have to commence their operations and this has been objected to by the tribals. The non-tribals started relay hunger strikes. Some farmers alleged that the Rampachodavaram based voluntary organization "Shakti" was in "instigation" the tribals. However, the chief of "Shakti", Mr. Sivaramakrishna was not apologetic and asserted that his organization would fight for the tribals rights.

The hon's share of the land is in the possession of non-tribals in the three agency mandals viz Polavaram, Buttayagudem and Jeelugumilli. According to official figures, while the percentage of tribals in Polavaram is 59 (total population 17,787 of which 10,524 are tribals) and in Buttayagudem 60 (total population 25,336 of which tribals are 6,627). While an extent of 18,358 hectares is held by the tribals, as much as 28,367 hectares is being enjoyed by the non-tribal farmers in the agency area.

As of now, both tribals and non-tribals have agreed on certain points. Status quo will be maintained, which means, tribals will enjoy the ladies for which pattas were given to them recently and they will also not occupy lands of non-tribals till a survey is conducted and ownership rights are decided. Officials have also agreed to read out, in public, the status of land bookings. In fact, records were read out in public in Munugopula, Jillellagudem on July 15. This was considered to be a victory for the tribals.

During 1987, a survey was done to implement the Telugu Girijan Maagani Samaaradhana Scheme (TGMS). This survey had identified the extent of Government lands, encroachments by non-tribals, the extent of cultivation land available, etc. The tribals have also been demanding publication of these details.






W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



Click here to Bauxite Case: Read full article.