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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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 Tribals for eviction of encroachers

C. Lokeswara Rao

Eluru: Ferment is brewing in the Koya tribal bolt in the up­lands of' West Godavari district the primordial issue of land Girijans in six villages of Polavaram, Jeelugumilli and mandate have refusing to allow non-tribal farmers access to their fields over the last six months.

Tribals are demanding im­mediate action 10 distribute banjar land in the villages. They are also impatient that nothing has materialized so far from promises made months ago by the district collector to take steps identify and can­cel assignments of land in agency area to non-tribals and thus paving way for distribu­tion of land to tribals also. tribals are getting restive in tribals have been resisting implementation of orders passed by revenue officials allow present owners (i.e. non-tribals) to cultivate lands until due process is completed for evicting encroachers

A non-tribal was injured by an arrow in a clash between. Tribals and non-tribals over land in May and when seven tribals were arrested after the clash hundreds of tribals armed with bows and arrows marched on to the Jeelugumilli police station. Now, with non-tribal farmers having to virtually miss the present kharif season, a law and order situation is building up in the villages swept by the ferment against non-tribals. Three police pickets have been stationed but tension is building Uplands in West Godavari dis­trict, referred to in revenue jargon as Assessed Waste Dry ­lands (ASD) in these parts, are prized on account of rich yields of cash crops like chilly, cotton and tobacco. Land commands a price of above Rs.1.5 lakh an acre in the adjoining non-tribal area of Jangareddigudem mandal. Non-tribal encroachers who have been farming land over some decades tend to sell land for as littia as Rs.20,000 or Rs.l5000, they apprehend that ultimately non-tribals would face evic­tion from the tribal are. Apparently there are many land hungry farmers with venture to buy land here, mainly on account of rich crop yields Cotton farmers reportedly pay annual lease of Rs.8,000 an acre here.

A campaign against non-tribal farmer was built up in recent years after Sakthi, a voluntary agency, began to arm villagers with information on banjar lands supposedly available in respective villages. While some complaints are pursued against non-tribals, the general stand of tribals is that they want immediate distribution of banjar land (which might have been encroached). The girijans are prepared to wait for eviction of non-tribal and distribution of such land. However, in order to lend teeth to their agitation for banjar land, they are taking a stand that non-tribals would not be allowed to cultivate their fields until government distribute banjar land. Officials of in­termediate levels, like mandal revenue officers or police can perhaps help in delaying the process of evicting non-tribals. But even to the officials are helpless against the determination of tribal to prevent cultivation. Usually the non-tribals farming lard in these tribal villages live in some other villages and they have been unable to break the resistance of tribals even when they come in convoys of tractors. The non-tribals have been trying other methods like 'dharnas' to bring pressure government.

Ironically, the present ferment began with an order by the special deputy collector (and transfer regulations) over complaint by one Ramineni Rathiah regarding 29 acres of land in Jellellagudem village of Jeelugumilli mandal. The man who held possession was evicted but since the ceinplainant could not establish has tribal status, the land was to be distributed among tribals. The sub-collector of Kovvur took prompt action to evict the encroacher against whom a complaint was pursued. Later following protests like hunger-strikes and 'dharna', "section 145" order was passed restraining both parties from entering the disputed land until a revenue order is passed in the matter. The sub-collector then passed an order which noted that while non-tribals in possession of land had violated section one of 70" dealing with alination of tribal land, they could continue in possession until appropriate procedure for restoring tribal land was complete.

Such "section 145" orders could not be implemented due to opposition from tribals. Then a three-point compromise was worked out implementation of pending orders in favour of tribals or non-tribals a - not disturbing non -tribals while cases are pending 3-reaaing out records of Telugu Girijana Magani Samaradhana (agency land survey conducted in 1987) in all villages.

The collector of West Godavari visited the area in July and late got land records released to village committees comprising educated tribal and four girijan women. People armed with such official in formation discovered that 500 acres of banjar land was supposed to be available in Mugopala village.

The project officer of ITDA Kota Ramachandrapuram who was directed by the collector to file papers for initiating procedure for canceling assignments to non-tribals reportedly takes his own time. Then the file was returned by the collectors office because come in formation was wanting.

In the mean time Koyas in other villages took up similarly protests. While farming was not allowed in Thatiramannagudem Munugopala. Koyanagannapalem and Reddinagannampalem non-tribals were stopped from entering fields planted with cotton in Lankalapalli in the end of September. The stalemate continues.






W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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