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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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Non-tribals try to attack Collector
December 13, 1995.

News flash

Eluru, Dec. 12: The untoward behaviour of the non-tribals of the agency area and the way they spoke to the District Collector, Mr. D. Ramakrishna, had led to confusion and a wordy duel between the officials present in Collector's chamber and non-tribals on Wednesday.

At one stage they pushed towards Collector in rage. The officials present there formed a ring around Mr. Ramakrishna and Joint Collector. Mr. M. Subrahmanyam to keep them at bay.

It may be recalled that the non-tribals who had a scuffle with the tribals for the past two years over the ownership are facing threats of armed attack and trespassing.

The dispute increased in August-September this year, when some Tribals were arrested for trespassing into non-tribal lands.

The government has established Settlement Court at Kovvur and a Special Deputy Collector Tribal Welfare Court at Kota Ramachandrapuram to solve their problems by attention was not paid because of last Lok Sabha elections and then cyclones.

The Bhadrachalam Tribal MLA, Mr. Kunja Bojji, in recent past visited the area and said that the Tribals will agitate and take possession of their lands.

The Collector on Wednesday, tried to pacify the angry non-tribals and informed that the RDO of Kovvur was on the job to find out a solution.

Then the dis-satisfied non-tribals started arguing the Collector who was having discussions with the district officials accompanying the World Bank team.

The main hitch of non-tribals was delay in implementation of LRT Act of 1/70.

Added to this the Non-tribals are also sore over revenue and police departments' attitude.

The Telegraph 15, 9, 1995

AP tribal women lead fight to wrest land

Hyderabad , Nov.14:

The campaign by various voluntary organisations to promote awareness among tribals about land ownership and their cause and put a stumbling block to exploitation by non-tribals.

However, the political clout of non-tribals enabled them to initiate government procedures for disbursement of wasteland in the tribal areas.

Under the clause of AWD (assigned, waste and dry) lands, non-tribals were issued land pattas and purchases were registered with the connivance of local revenue officials.

Though Act 1\70 of Land Transfer Regulation orders forbids such land acquisition by non-tribals in the tribal areas, the state government promoted such acts in the name of development.

When Central legislation came in the way of acquisition, the state government obtained stay orders for non-tribals against the implementation of the transfer regulation orders in violation of the Supreme Court ruling.

The tribal movement was influenced by extremists and other voluntary activists who encouraged the tribals to throw lout non-tribals from the tribal areas.

The people's War Group (PWG) claimed in August that it had helped the tribals of Visakhapatnam and West and East Godavari districts reclaim nearly 12,000 acres from non-tribals.

Some tribal-friendly IAS officers took strong action to keep tribal lands away from non-tribals and enraged politicians in the process.

"In the entire tribal belt on the east coast, none of the project directors of the Integrated Tribal Development Agency, set up through Central legislation and funded by the Centre, were able to complete their tenures. Most of the IAS cadres were shifted on flimsy grounds due to political interference," a senior IAS officer in the tribal welfare ministry here said.

In West Godavari district alone, nearly 1,700 cases are pending before the courts, involving nearly 12,000 acres of such allotments. Though the law forbade such allotments, the courts supported non-tribals on grounds that they valid titles since the 1960s.

Since the illiterate tribals had no idea what was written in documents, non-tribals bought land in the name of fictitious tribal farmers.

Ironically, though special tribal collectors ordered the takeover of 1,400 acrea in the three mandals from non-tribals and disbursement for tribals, politicians and administrators in lower ranks made sure the order was never carried out.

The mandal revenue officers reported the last week of October that, of the 1,400 acres, only 213 acres in 62 cases were acquired by the government.

The government indifference has further infuriated tribals who have now decided lto forcibly evacuate non-tribals from their land. Tribal leaders have threatened government officials to hand over the acquired land officially of face consequences.

They have also urged tribal welfare officials and deputy collectors to read out revenue documents on the land transfer regulation in villages so that they could understand and identify benami holders. "We cannot keep silent when outsiders are exploiting all the facilities in the name of tribals," Gujju China Doolappaof Jellelugugudem said.

Interestingly, tribal women are leading the movement against the illegal occupation. They demonstrated before the district collectorate compelling the government to act.

Once a week they take out processions in mandal headquarters with placards saying "We do not want your programmes, we thrift associations, mahila sangams and night schools to promote literacy in tribal villages with the help of voluntary organisations like Shakhi. In this long drawn battle, the tribals are keeping the Naxals at bay for fear of repression.

The movement in West Godavari has slowly districts of East Godavari and Visakhapatnam . But lack of coordination among tribals and the agencies is evident as the voluntary organisations, suppressed by the government, are losing interest in the movements. The prolonged litigation involved in the cases has also slowed them down.

Despite all this the tribal movement to block the takeover of their ancestral land has not only sparked off a major agitation in the green forest belts of the north coastal districts but has also threatened to spred to Telengana.



W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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