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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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Uneasy calm in West Godavari
Thursday, August 8, 1996.


Eluru, Aug. 7: An eerie of silence prevails after three days of hectic activity of attack, counter-attack and rasta roko, setting ablaze of mandal revenue offices at Jangareddigudem and Jeelugumilli in the agency area of West Godavari .

The womenfolk in the non-tribal villages and hamlets are still in the grip of fear of attack any time by the tribals while the male members are away from home. The tribal hamlets wear a grim look and many of the villagers are seen holding discussions among themselves.

They claim that the non-tribals attacked when they were at rest and they retaliated in defence. At this juncture, it is impossible to ascertain who is at fault.

Though the revenue records say that out of 145 villages of Polavaram (23), Koyyalagudem (18), Jangareddigudem (22), Buttaigudem (53) and Jeelugumilli (29) mandals, 102 villages are classified as scheduled lands (agency), the census statistics of 1991 claims that out of the total population of 2,52,689 in these 145 villages, the Scheduled Tribe population is 39,428 only.

A perusal of earlier statistics during 1960, claim that the Scheduled Tribes were over- numbered and 55.1 per cent of then population. The raise of non-tribal population is due to heavy migration during 1969-70 and 1980.

After the introduction of Rytwari Act 2 of 1969 and abolition of 29 estates and convertion into rytwari, a large extent of land in this area was sold at throw-away price. This led to migration of people to this area. To curtail the migration of outsiders and provide security for the tribals, the Land Transfer Regulation (LTR) Act one of 1970 was effected. Earlier in 1899, rytwari settlement and in 1948 Estates Abolition Act had little impact. After the introduction of LTR Act in 1970, also for a decade there was heavy rush of migration from the plains. This led to the misconception among tribals that their legitimate right of enjoying the fruit of the soil in their area was taken away by the non-tribals and created hatred as there was no change in their living conditions. Add to their miseries, some outside elements entered to the area and kindled hopes among the tribals not to rest until they secure their legitimate right over the lands.

As a maiden effort in June 1995, a large number of tribals, including women and children from Tadiramannagudem, Jillellagudem and other villages obstructed the cultivation of 600 acres of land under Bangaramma tank in Tatiramannagudem. In that attack, about a score of non-tribals were injured and many of them run for their lives. That created enthusiasm among tribals and they made efforts to secure control over some more land in other villages. Again on October 15, there was another clash between tribals and non-tribals at Tatiramannagudem of Jelugumilli mandal over the control over land. The Sub-inspector of Police was also kidnapped at that time.

After a break of none months, the latest dispute over land ownership occurred at Busarajupalli village and 25 non-tribals were hurt in the clashes. This time some of the local politicians were also injured.

The police have promulgated 144 Section in all sensitive villages and police pickets, patrolling teams are seen in the agency area to avoid further clashes.

Mr. G. Alfred, Director General of Police, who visited the area, personally left instructions to the subordinates regarding keeping law and order under control.

However, the revenue staff working in the tribal mandals became the target of both the sections as their bonafides were suspected. The sections as their bonafides were suspected. The setting ablaze of the records at MRO offices at Jangareddigudem and Jeelugumilli may create some more confusion in settling the land disputes. The declaration of the Minister for Panchayat Raj, regarding establishment of settlement court may give some relief to both the sections.






W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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