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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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Storm Drewing in tribal hinterland
December 8, 1996.

By G Ranganath

Buttayagudem (West Godavari dist), Dec-7: The struggle for the government land and the assessed waste dryland (AWD) by the tribals in the agency areas of Jeelugumilli, Buttayagudem and Ploavaram mandals after a brief hill following the 'Reddyganapavaram (Buttayagudem mandal) incident' on December 19 has once again picked up momentum with reports of theft of paddy and tobacco crops raised by non-tribals on the disputed lands.

The situation in several villages and tribal hamlets, including Reddyganapavaram and Boosarajupalli, in the mandal is grim and any time it may explode into a serious law and order problem. It appears that neither the police nor the revenue department is sincerely trying to more peace in the already charged areas.

Harvesting of standing crop has been hampered in hundreds of acres of the disputed land in the mandal as the tribals were not allowing the non-tribals to go ahead with the reaping. Paddy crop worth several lakhs of rupees was left for the cattle to graze on.

It may be recalled that on a complaint from a non-tribal farmer that paddy crop in his five acre land was illegally reaped by the tribals at Reddyganapavaram, the police booked a case against 12 persons and raided the tribal hamlet on December 19.

Narrating the incident to The Indian Express, Koram Gouramma, a tribal woman, said, 'The police raided our hamlet at around 3 am. They knocked at my door and asked for our leader Madakam Venkateswara Rao. When I opened the door and said that I did not know the where about's of our leader, they gagged and then dragged by the hair on to the road beating with sticks and using filthy language. Only when my sister raised an alarm did the neighbours come to our rescue. Nevertheless, the police had beat up me as well as women in the neighbourhood. If they should they come at that odd hour and beat us? They should have come in the day and inquired into the matter."

A youth, K. Venkateswara Rao said, "About 70 policemen bashed up 18 men and women, after which the entire hamlet rushed to the scene with their traditional weapons of bows and arrows. The police gave up the charge on noticing the increasing number of our men joining the counter-offensive."

"In violation of the provisions of the law, non-tribals who do not belong to our village, were given pattas for the government and AWD lands. We will not stop the fight till the revenue officials give the land to us."

Refuting the allegation that the tribal women of Reddyganapavaram, Jangareddygudem were beaten the police, DSP J. Brahma Reddy said, "We have been politely dealing with the tribals as they are an innocent and ignorant lot. They behave well with us whenever we visit their village. There is no need for us to bash them up. We have been asking them to give up illegal harvest of crops. Even yesterday, we received a complaint that the tribals had reaped paddy crop in about five acres at Reddyganapavaram."

Another senior officer, on the condition of anonymity, said, "That day, when we went to Reddyganapavaram to arrest them, the tribals attacked us in a planned manner. Hundreds of tribals assembled and we were outnumbered within no time. About 10 of us were Injured in the attack. They also seized a .303 gun from one of our men and took all of us hostages. The night before that incident, Vyavasaya Karmika Sangham (CPI(M) affiliate body) district president M. Eswaraiah and secretary Manthena Seetharam, who were somehow informed of our visit, clandestinely met the tribals in the hamlet and planned the attack. We were flabbergasted when the tribals who had been polite to us till the other day, turned violent and attacked us. We are sure that only the two leaders were responsible for itr. Such leaders are taking advantage of the tribals' innocence and exploiting them for their selfish ends."

A 70-year-old tribal farmer Paida Jogaiah of Boosarajupalli (Buttayagudem mandal) said, "When I was ten, my father along with six others of our family brought 18 acres of forest land into cultivation by cutting down the trees and leveling it as the then karanam B. Venkataramaiah had promised to distribute the land among us. We were allowed to cultivate the land for only a year after which the karanam sold it away to a non-tribal, B. Suraiah, since then we have been eking out a living as mere agricultural workers."

The survey that has recently been initiated to find out as to who is enjoying ownership on patta lands and government wastelands is going at a snail's pace. It even ended halfway in some areas as the revenue authorities did not want to incur the wrath of the tribals. The reason was the difference of opinion that cropped up between the revenue officials and the tribals and the tribals when the latter came to know that the survey was being conducted as per the Revenue Survey Records (RSR) of 1933 as against their demand for its conduct as per Section 1 of the Land Transfer Regulation Act of 1970 (usually referred to as 'act one of seventy') as well as in accordance with the RSR of 1903.

Disregarding the advice of the top brass of the department and the police, the tribals are reaping the crops raised by the non-tribals. Prospects for an amicable settlement between the tribals and non-tribals in the near future appear dim as the revenue department itself is confused as to which records it should follow in regard to conduct of the survey and distribution of pattas to tribals.

The situation is gradually becoming tense with the increasing intervention of leftist and radical parties which is a pointer to the gravity of the dispute. Currently, the atmosphere






W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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