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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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Show of solidarity by tribals
The Hindu, Saturday, December 21, 1996.

From Our Staff Reporter

Reddyganapavaram (West Godavari), Dec. 20: The hostage drama at Reddyganapavaram, a remote tribal village in West Godavari district, ended on a happy note, mainly because of both sides exercising restraint. The police and the tribals, who were armed to the teeth, dispersed by Thursday evening, without firing a single shot.

But the reputation of police and revenue departments was badly bruised the the episode. First, the officers bargained for the release of policemen held captive and tendered an apology, Secondly, the force retreated leaving behind a weapon snatched by tribals during the scuffle.

It is believed that the top police officers at district headquarters had no knowledge of the pre-dawn raid on the village. Mrs. Kuram Gowramma, a tribal women who was the target of police, said the Jangareddygudem Deputy Superintendent of Police, Mr. J. Brahma Reddy, who was moved by her condition (torn clothes and ruffled hair) feigned ignorance and apologized to her.

It is learnt that the officers in Eluru were not given a true picture of the alarming situation and the help of the Joint Collector, Mr. M. Subramanyam, and Additional Superintendent of Police, Mr. Laxma Reddy, was sought to negotiate with the tribals. The District Collector and the SP remained at Eluru.

Villagers' version

According to villagers, an armed police party went to the house of Gowramma around 2 a.m. and woke up the family by knocking at the door. The policemen forced their way into the house and started beating up the woman and other members of the family with sticks. Gowramma said her four-year-old grandson fell to the ground when policemen overturned the cot. In the meantime, Gowramma's teenage daughter escaped and ran on the streets raising an alarm. In no time the entire tribal population of the village was on the streets scuffling with the police. The women, who resisted the men being whisked away by police, were beaten up and their mouths gagged to prevent them from raising an alarm. Ten tribals suffered simple bleeding injuries. Eight of them were women.

The tribals went berserk and attacked policemen when they laid hands on tribal chieftain Baburao, known as 'Pedakapu' in tribal parlance. The tribals stood against the police vehicle and blocked the way.

As the message of attack flashed across the tribal belt, men, women and children armed with bows, arrows, clubs, machetes and chilli powder marched to Reddyganapavaram by sunrise. The number swelled to over a thousand by 10.30 a.m.

The policemen were held hostage till 3 p.m. until the senior officials from Eluru arrived. The policemen went without food and the canteen in the village was forced to close by tribals.

The tribals demonstrated a rare solidarity. People from Pakalagudem, Regulakunta, Palakunta, Taditota, Veerannapalem, Busarajupalli, Marrigudem, Jegichettgudem, Uppalapadu and Toorpuregulakunta laid siege to the village. Some of the tribals brought their lunch along with their weapons. For others, three bags of rice was cooked and Rs. 1,800 was spent on provisions.

Kaki Balaraju of Bugarajupalli said the police came to his house first which was five km from Reddyganapavaram. But he refused to open the door and asked them to come next morning.

The tribal area consisting of Buttayagudem, Polavaram and Jeelugumilli is slowly slipping out of the control of the administration. The Government machinery is in a helpless state as tribals are harvesting crop from the fields cultivated by non-tribals. Over 50 acres was reaped by tribals in Reddyganapavaram, Busarajupalli and Ramannapalem.

The land problem in the tribal area is 100 years old. An analysis of various laws reveals that the interests of tribals were not taken care of completely. The Agency Tracts Interest and Land Transfer Act, 1917, rendered null and void any deal transferring land from a tribal to a non-tribal. However, an exemption existed. The transfer could be effected by the 'written consent of the agent (District Collector)'.

The passage of the 1917 Act makes it clear that penetration of non-tribals into the agency tracts assumed serious dimension in the first quarter of the century. After Independence , the State Government brought in a comprehensive law, the Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer Regulation Act, 1959.

The Act prohibited land transfer from a tribal to a non-tribal altogether and the provision 'consent of the agent' was dropped. To provide more teeth to the Act, the regulation 1 of 1970 popularly known as '1 0f 70' was brought in. It prohibited exchange of land even among non-tribals.

The post of special deputy collector (tribal welfare) was created to review land deals suo motu and eject non-tribals if found holding land in violation of the law. The liability was with the non-tribal land owner to prove that his possession was in accordance with the law.

The office of SDC(TW), located at Kotaramachandrapuram, reviewed 6,700 cases involving 35,000 acres since its inception. About 4,400 cases (2500 acres) were disposed of in favour of non-tribals and 1300 cases (6,500 acres) in favour of tribals. About 700 cases (2,500 acres) were dropped and 120 (1800 acres) cases were pending.

Weapon restored to police

The weapon snatched from a constable during the scuffle at Reddyganapavaram on Thursday was restored to police on Friday.






W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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