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 The RoFR act recognizes the dwelling site, religious places, burial grounds, village council sites along with places of MFP, water resources, biodiverisity etc and also PVT tenures. As the implementation boils down to title deeds for house sites and lands under cultivation, SAKTI engaged the Chenchu youth to document their traditional knowledge in their idiom and dialect, in encouraging them to assert as inborn foresters, capable of managing these resources as envisaged in the Act.

"Since SAKTI activities are mostly issue based and covering a large area, here we concentrate on the forest-related programmes of SAKTI for the present study."


The Tribal Struggle for Property Rights

-Arun Kumar

SAKTI: Review Report by: Mukta Srivastava, Programme Officer, Oxfam GB in India - Hyderabad . DATE : 20-25 November 2002




Bhukya Bhangya

Asst. Professor of History

Nizam College,

Osmania University,


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By R.J. Rajendra Prasad. 

HYDERABAD, July 28 :  …. parties often advise the banned peoples war Group to join the main stream and achieve their objective of serving the records through the existing system of laws.  But the experience of the Koya tribesmen of West Godavari district, who were able to produce land records through the assistance of SAKTI a Non-Governmental Organisation, to establish their ownership under the Land Transfer Regulation of 1970 has been one of frustration.  This is because of the nexus between the politicians, bureaucrats and non-tribal landloards, which has forced the tribals to take to their arrows in a primitive form of protest that resulted in the death of a non-tribal farmer on June 30 last. 

There are 101 villages in the Scheduled Areas of West Godavari district. Dr.P. Sivaramakrishna director of SAKTI, engaged educated Koya youth and painstakingly collected land records pertaining to these villages for the year 1932.  Then volunteers from this group went into the tribal villages and read out the names from these records which showed several tribal families that they in fact, were the actual landowners.  The non-tribals responded by burning land records in the offices of the Settlement Courts.

 The Regulation 1 of 1970 incorporates a presumption clause, saying that any immovable property in possession of a person, who is not a tribal, would be presumed to have been acquired by him by transfer from a person belonging to a Scheduled Tribe.  This regulation also bans land transfer from one non-tribal to another non-tribal.  A non-tribal farmer is now oblged to prove that he acquired the land before 1970.  Further there is the problem of Assessed WasteDry (AWD) land and government poromboke fand.  If the intention of the government was to protect the tribals from exploitation.  It follows that the AWD and poromboke also should have been assigned only to tribals.  These two aspects are sought to be xxxxx enforced by tribals with the help of SAKTI however, this has led social tensions as the non-tribal landloards are fiercely resisting these moves.

 The Assembly debate on the tribal conflict showed that a solution Is not yet in sight, be­cause a Cabinet Sub-Committee is to tour the affected villages and strive to solve the problem peacefully. The CPI stand, as explained by Mr. Vanka Sathyanarayana, was that marginal farmers owning less than 2.5 acres of wet and five acres of dry land should be exempted from the purview of the Regulation 1 of 1970. Since non-tribal farmers cannot sell their lands except to a tribal, the Government should purchase these lands at market rates, just as market rates were paid to farmers whose lands were taken over for the Visakhapatnam Steel Plant and the Srisailam and Somasila irrigation projects, al about Rs.20,000 per acre, and the land so taken over could be distributed among the tribal.

 The CPI(M) is however, against any amendment to Regulation 1 of 1970.  And the CPI (M) also wants to protest the small and marginal non-tribal FARMERS CULTIVATING LANDS.  As Mr. Bodepudi Venkateswara Rao explained it, marginal farmers belonging to Scheduled Castes should be allowed to cultivate lands under their occupatin, with the consent of tribals.  The tribal would be persuaded not to challenge the marginal farmers sights through cuasets so that the status … can continue.

 The problem today is that about 50 per cent land in the Scheduled Areas has already passes on the non-tribal farmers during the past 30 years, despite so many regulations in force in favour of tribals. The tribal region along the banks of the Godavari, the “Dandakaranya” area, is the main support base for the People’s War Group, which has been implementing its own version of land distribution by forcing bigger farmers to vacate the lands. The West Godavari experiment is in fact an opportunity for the State Government to show that land issues can be resolved through petitions to District Collectors and Settlement Courts. The move to amend Regulation 1 of 1970 is, however, being opposed by social activists, on the ground that since people have been able to circumvent the most stringent of Regulaztions as it is, any further dilution would only drive the tribals out of the forest areas.

 The tribal point of view is getting support from people like Dr. B.S. Sharma, a forverf Commissioner of Scheduled Castes and Tribes, who visited West Godavari district, and who are supporting the NGOs engaged in restoring land to tribals. Ms. Medha Patkar is also scheduled to tour the area.  



W.P. No. 5515/87 M.P.No.7398/87 Date:May 1987

W.P. No. 6175/87 M.P.No.8273/87 Date:May 1987

 "Managing Director Godavari plywoods ltd. Rampachodavaram E.G.Dt. be and hereby is directed not to cut any mango trees, jamun and jack trees and cutting the forests of Maredumilli mandal, E.G.Dt."

 Only matured or dying trees were to be felled. Jeelugu (Caryota urens) palm, trees yielding minor forest produce like tamarind or cane brakes, creepers were not to be touched. A gap of 20 meters from a stream.)         --Times of India, April 30, 1991.


The candidate has chosen a topical subject, very relevant to our thinking on culture, cognition and language. He has red widely and is familiar with the literature that matters. His linguistic and anthropological reasoning is sound. His language is clear and simple.

...evidence of the investigator's ability as a linguist by special training and as a linguistic anthropologist by self - cultivated interest.

Prof. A.Munirathnam Reddy, Head, Department of Social Anthropology,S.V.University, Tirupati - 517502


Enabling the Community to Gain Command Over the Administrative Process is Empowerment.


"Today the development is manaement without governance and governanace is without proper participation."



A.P.Cabinet Sub - Committee Report on Left Wing Extrremists. - P.Sivaramakrishna.

The only information the government or media always compile carefully is on Naxalite encounters, never the violations of the instruments of rule of law such as minimum wages, fifth schedule, mismanagement of forests, equity in the distribution of welfare benefits, displacement, fragmentation of Socio-economic entities etc. 



if the R & R is found to be lagging with reference to the fixed bench marks, the construction should accordingly be deferred / stopped;



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